Utilities of India



India has one of the largest power generation capacities in the world. Electricity generation in the country is split between the central state sector, state sector and private sector. In 2012 there was call for privatisation of the energy sector following the collapse of many of the country’s electricity grids. Despite this, the majority of electricity is still generated by government institutions, which account for over 41 per cent of overall generation.

The central sector and private sector are roughly equal in terms of power generation, with the central sector contributing 30 per cent of the country’s total electricity, while the private sector produces approximately 29 per cent of the total. Major players in the central sector include the National Hydroelectric Power Corporation and the Nuclear Power Corporation of India, while private companies include Essar Power.

The oil and gas sector is dominated by the public sector, though the government has opened it up to private sector involvement. The Indian Oil Corporation is the largest public sector organisation, with Reliance Petroleum being the largest player in the private sector.



Water is supplied by the state-run National Water Board (NWB) and is under the chairmanship of the secretary of the Ministry of Water Resources. NWB co-exists alongside regional water boards, such as the Delhi Water Board.

In recent years, the country’s huge economic growth has put significant strain on existing resources. This has resulted in the degradation of the quality of tap water, which has also resulted in a thriving industry in bottled water, attracting major multinationals such as Coca Cola, Pepsi and Nestlé.

In August 2012, the Government of Delhi approved a proposal to involve private entities in the distribution and maintenance of the water supply in three areas of the city on a public–private partnership basis.



Several decades of widespread and successive growth, brought about by the liberalisation of the sector in 1992, have meant that India currently possesses one of the largest, fastest growing telecoms industries in the world. The main fixed line providers in the country are the state-owned Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited, the largest and oldest communications provider in India, and Mahanagar Telephone Nigam Limited, a state-owned telecoms provider serving the metro cities of Mumbai and New Delhi. There are several private companies providing mobile telephone and internet services.