Supporting The Public Sector of United Republic of Tanzania
Public spending on education was 6.2 per cent of GDP in 2010. There are seven years of compulsory education starting at the age of seven. Primary school comprises seven years and secondary six, with cycles of four and two years. Some 81 per cent of pupils complete primary school (2009). The principal public universities are the University of Dar es Salaam (established in 1970); Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro (1984, before which it was the Faculty of Agriculture and Forestry of the University of Dar es Salaam); and Open University of Tanzania (established for distance education in 1995). There are a number of private universities, including Hubert Kairuki Memorial University (with faculties of medicine and nursing; Dar es Salaam, established 1997); and International Medical and Technological University (Dar es Salaam, 1995). The female–male ratio for gross enrolment in tertiary education is 0.50:1 (2012). Literacy among people aged 15–24 is 77 per cent (2010).
The National Public Private Partnership Policy 2009 facilitates investment into the education sector in Tanzania, regulated by the Ministry of Education. Education in Tanzania is provided both by the public and private sectors. Private schools can have substantial attendance fees and often cater to those who do not pass the Standard VII exam, which is a necessary requirement for government secondary school enrolment, as well as those from an economically privileged background. Annual tuition fees vary between around TSh 200,000 (US$150) and TSh 32 million ($20,000) for private secondary schools.
Public spending on health was three per cent of GDP in 2010. Muhimbili Medical Centre, Dar es Salaam, is the country’s principal referral centre and teaching hospital. Other referral hospitals are at Moshi, Mwanza and Mbeya. Infant mortality was 45 per 1,000 live births in 2011 (142 in 1960). In 2011, 5.8 per cent of people aged 15–49 were HIV positive. Both the private and public sectors provide medical facilities in Tanzania. The National Public Private Partnership Policy 2009 facilitates private sector participation in the sector, with the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare functioning as the regulatory agency.
The Tanzania Buildings Agency (TBA) is a semi-autonomous executive agency under the Ministry of Works that was established under the Executive Agencies Act No 30 of 1997 and became operational in 2002. The aim of the TBA is to provide quality, affordable accommodation for government and public servants through real estate, consultancy and business services. In December 2012 Mohammed Gharib Bilal, Vice-President of Tanzania, announced that the current shortage of housing in the country, estimated at three million units and growing, can only be solved through the use of public–private partnerships as the investment needed is extensive. Initiatives such as the Mortgage Finance Act and establishment of the Tanzania Mortgage Refinancing Company were set up to promote loans into housing construction.
There are 78,890 km of roads, 8.6 per cent paved. The main ports are at Dar es Salaam, Mtwara, Tanga and Zanzibar. Regular boat services carry passengers and freight between Dar es Salaam and Zanzibar. Ferries provide freight and passenger transport on Lake Victoria.
The Ten Year Transport Sector Investment Programme began in 2007 under the Ministry of Transport and Works to encourage investment into the transport sector. The government has initiated a number of reforms to support economic growth within the transport sector. One reform facilitated the creation of semiautonomous agencies for service delivery. Operational agencies include the Tanzania Airports Authority, Tanzania Meteorological Agency and the Tanzania Government Flight Agency. The Surface and Marine Transport Regulatory Authority and the Tanzania Civil Aviation Authority were also established as a result of reforms. The reforms are intended to increase private sector participation in the transport sector through the use of management contracts and the sale of parastatals.
Rail: There are two railway systems, extending to a total of 4,460 km and running on two different gauges. One links Dar es Salaam with central, western and northern Tanzania and Kenya, the other links Dar es Salaam to Zambia (Tanzania–Zambia Railways Authority or Tazara). Tanzania Railways Corporation was privatised in the 2000s as Tanzania Railways Ltd when a 51 per cent stake was sold to an Indian company called Rites. However, a dispute arose over Rites’ investment levels in the railway, which saw the government re-acquire its shares.
Airports: There are three international airports (Dar es Salaam, Kilimanjaro and Zanzibar) and more than 50 local airports and airstrips. Because of the size of the country and scattered population, air services have become the most significant form of internal transport for official and business travel. The government sold a 49 per cent stake in Air Tanzania to South African Airways in 2002, but bought it back four years later, as revenue had dropped sharply. The government is currently in discussion with China Sonangol International Holdings about selling it a stake in the airline.